"Life begats life"

milkweed bugs and beetles on common milkweed
milkweed bugs and beetles on common milkweed

“Life begats life, not only in terms of offspring, but also as each species, by its very presence, creates new conditions suitable for colonization by other species. A tree must be present before a resurrection fern can colonize its branches or before a northern parula warbler can forage for insects in its crown. Once the warbler is present, a black rat snake can eat its eggs and a mosquito or other parasite can drink its blood. As each new species arises in a natural community, it creates an opportunity, or niche, for other species to enter.”

from – Mountain Nature: A Seasonal Natural History of the Southern Appalachians
by Jennifer Frick-Ruppert, page 4.

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